IELTS対策コラム

5分でわかる英文法! 「名詞の不規則変化」

セシル2

 

名詞 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

名詞の不規則変化を文の中で正しく使うことでIELTS / TOEFL  

スピーキングとライティングの評価を上げることができます。

Most of the nouns are made plural by adding “s” or “es” in the end.  Of course, we know that some nouns change their spelling or stay the same regardless of the number. They are called irregular-plural nouns. It is significant to know the rules of converting singular nouns to their plural forms because one reason is that, our English skill is better assessed and determined by other people based on how we talk about different nouns, and how we use them in sentences.

 

Below are the rules in changing irregular nouns to their plural forms:

以下は代表的な名詞の複数形不規則変化になります。

▮ 「注意すべき集合名詞」 

fish fruitなどそのままの形で「魚全般」「くだもの全般」を表します。

Some nouns never change their spelling and remain the same

when transformed to plural.

 

Fish-fish  Fruit-fruit

例文:I saw a school of fish in the river (川の中に魚の群れが見えた)

例文:Does this tree bear much fruit? (この木には果物がたくさん実りますか)

 

▮ 「単数形と複数形が同じ」

Deer-deer   Sheep-sheep   Means-means,   Species-species

例文:There are many sheep here.

 

名詞 4

 

 

 

 ▮ 「不規則変化」 

Nouns that change some of their letters

in their plural form.

Woman-women

Child-children

Tooth -teeth

 

▮ 複数形になると別の意味を持つ名詞

There are nouns which only have their plural forms.

 

Most of them come in pairs.

Scissor (切る)-scissors (はさみ)

Force (力) – forces (軍隊)

Arm (腕) ― arms  (武器)

Glass(グラス)― – glasses (メガネ)

 

Force

名詞 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forces

名詞 6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regardless if there is only one piece of scissors,

we still use the plural form.

 

Example: Can you get the scissors on the table?

 

 

SPECIAL CASES: 不規則変化

There are, however, special cases in producing plural nouns:

 

▮  外来語の複数形は、英語のルールに従っていないので注意

Examples are Latin and Greek words also have their own plural forms.

 

(is-es)

-basis to bases

-hypothesis-hypotheses

(a-ae)

Antenna-antennae

Alumna-alumnae

(us-i)

Nucleus -nuclei

Fungus-fungi

Alumnus-alumni

Cactus-cacti

Octopus-octopi

(on-a)

Criterion- criteria

Phenomenon-phenomena

 

▮ 数字の複数形 語尾に-s を付ける

-We add s to numbers to make them plural. 

Example: There are many number 4s in your mobile number.

Please take away the 2s in this contact detail.

I was born in the 1980s.

(Note: To replace 19 in the statement, put apostrophe instead.)

 

▮ 数字の語尾に-’s を付ける

I was born in the ‘80s.

 

▮ 語尾に-s または-‘s を付ける

-To make the letters plural, add “s” to the capital ones and ‘s to the small cases.

Example: I got As on my exams.

                 We have to find the value of x’s in this mathematical problem.

 

▮ 略語に –s を付ける

 

-Simply add “s” for abbreviations.  

Example: Can I have your IDs?

                      I have to go to the store to buy some CDs.

 

Note: There are many different rules to form the plural forms of nouns. However, there are some words now that have been accepted by experts of the language, and it sometimes vary to different places where English is used. Examples are octopuses, cactuses, and etc.

 

 

 

5分でわかる!英文法「不定詞」

 

セシル2

   

 

 

 

 

What are infinitives?   不定詞とは

 

to不定詞を使うと、1つの文と同じ内容を、もっと短く言い表すことができます。

言い換えれば、to 不定詞は「これから先のこと」について述べた文を

「圧縮」したものと言えます。

to 不定詞を正しく使うことで、IELTS,TOEFLなどのスピーキングや

ライティング試験では高評価を得ることができますのでしっかりと学習してください。

 

不定詞 1

▮ to + 動詞の原形

to 不定詞の主な用法として文の中で名詞の働きをします (名詞的用法)

 

Example: to +eat = to eat

To eat is what I really need right now after that long travel.

 

In this example, you can say that the phrase: to eat, does not function as

a verb but as a noun. In addition, it is the main subject of the sentence

talking about what the speaker really needs right now. And that is, to eat.

<To eat は動詞としてではなく、名詞の働きをして文の主語になっています。>

 

「名詞的用法」の他にも「形容詞的用法」、「副詞的用法」もあります。

例:I have a lot of homework to do.  「形容詞的用法」

:She is working hard to buy a car. 「副詞的用法」

 

▮ to を使いわない「原形不定詞 bare infinitive

 

知覚動詞 + O + 動詞の原形

Another thing that confuses us to determine infinitives from verbs

is when we use infinitives without “to”, making it appear similarly to

an action word but with another purpose. We call these “bare infinitives.

Bare or zero infinitives are special kinds of infinitives without

the use of “to.” Most of these are preceded by special verbs

(verbs of senses) such as hear, see, feel, smell, and taste.

不定詞 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

hear, see, feel,のような知覚を表す動詞は、目的語の後に動詞の原形を置いて

「Oが〜するのを見る/聞く/感じる」という意味を表すことでできます。

 

The pattern is: special verb + direct object + bare infinitive

この形を取る動詞は知覚動詞と呼ばれ、

<知覚動詞 + O + 動詞の原形>という形で使われます。

 

Example:

I hear the birds chirp.  (hear+ the birds + chirp) I can hear the birds chirp. 

 (鳥の泣き声が聞こえる)

 

Instead of saying I can hear the birds (to chirp),

we take out the word “to” and retain the main verb.

 

Another example:   I hate to see my boyfriend smoke.  

私はボーイフレンドがタバコを吸うところを見るのが嫌だ

 

Note that with bare infinitives, we can never use the s-form of the verb

even when pertaining to a singular object.

 

▮ When to use Gerunds and Infinitives? 動名詞と不定詞使い分け

 

不定詞 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Though we already learned the functions of both, we have to keep in mind

that there are some standards or rules set to determine

whether to use gerunds or infinitives.

 

動名詞 ➡ 習慣的行為、や一般論

We use gerunds if the actions are completed and fixed or when it refers to an activity.

Example: I like reading a lot.  私は多読が好きだ

 

不定詞 ➡ これから先のこと、可能性のあること

 

We use infinitives if the actions are not yet started (future), unreal, and abstract.

Example: I like to bake a cake on your birthday.

 

▮ 目的語が動名詞と不定詞で意味が異なる他動詞

 forget / remember/regret  /try / stop

 

Keep in mind as well that choosing between gerunds and infinitives can change

the meaning of the entire sentence.

 

 「remember 」

Example:  I remembered to bring my coat.

= I remembered that I had brought my coat.

コートを忘れずに持って行ったことを覚えている

 

I remembered bringing my coat.

= I brought my coat and I remembered it

コートを持参したことを思い出しました

 

「regret 」

Example: I regret rejecting your offer.

あなたの申し出を断ったことを公開しています。

I regret to say that we must reject your offer.

残念ながら、あなたの申し出をお断りしなければなりません。

 

Therefore, it is important that we know their functions and differences

although they both act nouns in sentences.